Made with Xara Website by Susan Smily The information on this site was developed by Dr. Honora M. Finkelstein as a series of lecture notes for a World Cultures course. It contains a variety of information about many aspects of world culture throughout the ages Each of the major headings, and the other topics, can be reached through the links in the navigation bar at the top of each page. Part 1 - Ancient & Medieval Cultures Table of Contents Introduction o Why Study Humanities o Belief o Making the Heritage of the Past Real in the Present o 100 % American Archetypes o Three Types of Symbolism o Archetypes: A Jungian Approach to Understanding Literature Paleolithic o The Beginnings of Mankind o The Great Mother and Partnership Societies o The Roots of Westerns Languages o Paleolithic Astronomy o Paleolithic Medicine o The Use of Fire Mesopotamia o Mesopotamian Culture o On the Disappearance of the Goddess o Inanna as Goddess of Fertility and as Goddess of Love o The Myths of Inanna* "The Huluppu Tree" "Inanna and the God of Wisdom" "The Courtship of Inanna and Dumuzi" "The Descent of Inanna" "The Dream of Dumuzi" "The Return" "Seven Hymns to Inanna" o Inanna and Ego Death o The Zodiac in the Ancient World o Zodiacal Associations with Parts of the Human Body o The Seven Planets of the Ancient World o Inanna’s Trip as Archetypal Confrontation with the Shadow o Inanna’s Body Coverings and the Human Chakra System o Symbolism of the Number 7 o The Vegetation Gods of Antiquity o The Theme of the Epic of Gilgamesh o The Flood of Utnapishtim and other Mesopotamian Influences on the Old Testament Egypt  o Thoth, Hermes Trismegistus, the Greek Hermes, and the Roman God Mercury o More about Serpents and Rods of Power o The Gods of Egypt The Religious Centers of Egypt Egyptian Stories of Creation The Sun God and His Family The Myth of Osiris and Isis Horus and Thoth Animal Gods and Goddesses o The 18th Dynasty of Egypt (New Kingdom) o The Egyptian Calendar o The Sons of Horus o Akhenaten and the Worship of the Aten o Some Further Sidelights on Egypt o As Above, So Below o The Chakra System on the Egyptian Landscape o References for Egypt o A Gentle Warning Greece o The Gods and Goddesses of Greece The Greek Creation Saga The Greek Pantheon The Four Generations of Greek Gods and Goddesses Gods of Earth and of the Mysteries Comparisons of the Mystery Religions Variations in the Bacchic and Dionysiac Rites The Orphic Mysteries Prometheus as Trickster o The Myth of Theseus, the Minotaur, and the Labyrinth o The Illiad and The Trojan War The Trojan War Relationships of the Children of Zeus and Leda The Judgment of Paris The Scorecard for the Trojan War The Wrath of Achilles The Burial of Hector Where was Troy? o The Odyssey Composition and Plot of The Odyssey An Outline of The Odyssey o Hesiod and the Five Ages of Man o Aristotle’s Principles of Tragedy o Oedipus Roles of the Hero’s Journey Oedipus and the Hero’s Journey Tiresius: The Syzygy o Lysistrata o Women in Ancient Greece o Plato  Plato’s Attitude Toward Women Plato’s "Allegory of the Cave" Plato’s Phaedo - On the Death of Socrates o Greek Music o Pythagoras as Magus Rome o The Aeneid Part I - From Troy to Italy Part II - Descent into the Underworld Part III - War in Italy o Vergil as Magus o Other Roman Writers of Jesus’s Day Hebrews o Figures of Prominence in the Old Testament  Adam and Eve and the Creation Story Noah and the Flood Story Abraham Jacob and Joseph Joseph Jacob’s Blessing of His Sons on his Deathbed The 12 Tribes of Israel and the Signs of the Zodiac Moses David and Solomon Egyptian Parallels of Kings David and Solomon o The Hebrew Alphabet o Kabbala Kabbala and the Balancing Mechanism of Hebrew Mysticism The Tree of Life Study of the Kabbalah by Colin Low PDF o The Story of Job o Merkavah Mysticism o Angelic Warfare o The Temple of Jerusalem Christianity o Christianity, the New Testament, and the World of Jesus’ Jerusalem The Bible Rome in the Time of Jesus Jewish Sects in the Time of Jesus Where was Jesus Educated? Legends in France and Turkey Essene Gospel of Peace The Lord's Prayer o Language Change and the Importance of Roman Garrisons Across Europe o The Gospels o The Gnostic Christians o The Diabolization of the Jews o Saints to Remember o Eusebius and The History of the Church o Reincarnation as a Concept in the Ancient World o Boethius and The Consolation of Philosophy Byzantium o Byzantium o Anna Comnena Norse and Germanic o The Angles, the Saxons, and the Jutes o Norse Creation Myths o Norse Mythology o Wagner's Operas Islam o Muhammed and Islam o The Five Pillars of Islam o The Koran o God as Light The Celts o The Celtic Races, Gods, Heroes, and Symbols o The Gods and Goddesses of the Celts o The Mabinogion o A Selection of Celtic Deities and Heroes Europe:The Fall of Rome to the Late Middle Ages o The Franks o Einhard and The Life of Charlemagne o Beowulf o The Song of Roland o Eleanor of Aquitaine o Marie de France and the Trobaritz o The Arthurian Legends The Arthurian Legends Some Influences on Arthurian Legend Some Influences from Vegetation and Sun Gods of Early Cultures The Fisher King of Arthurian Legend The Green Man o The Grail Legends The Merovingian Dynasty and the Grail Romances: A Medieval Mystery The Cauldron of Rebirth: The Celtic Grail Mary Magdalen and the Holy Grail o The Templars Historic and Speculative Highlights of the Templars Templar Facts and Legends The Templars and Rosslyn Chapel o The Tarot Tarot: A System of Spirituality The Greater Arcana 1 (Cards 0-10) The Greater Arcana 2 (Cards 11-21) o Virgin Mothers o Astrological Implications of the Idea of “Virgin Birth” o St Luke with the Feet of an Ox o Dante's Divine Comedy Dante Alighieri (1265-1321) and the Divine Comedy Outline of the Circles of Hell Visitors to the Underworld in Ancient and Medieval Times o Hildegard of Bingen o Chaucer The Canterbury Tales The Wife of Bath's Tale o The Great Vowel Shift of the English Language (Part 2) .